Home remedy for gout in thumb


home remedy for gout in thumb

Truth: Alcoholic drinks — especially beer — and organ meats such as liver and some fish, including anchovies and sardines, are very high in a class of natural. What Cures Gout Results from 6 Web Search Engines. At Ankle & Foot Specialists of Conroe & The Woodlands, we know gout can be extremely unpleasant. Read here to learn how you can heal your gout issues at.

youtube video

Gout Diagnosis \u0026 Treatment

Home remedy for gout in thumb -

For those who suffer from gout, it’s hard to imagine a more painful, debilitating condition of the lower extremities. Gout is a condition that occurs when serum uric acid levels become too great, leading to formation of uric acid crystals in the joints of the feet, toes, ankles, and knees. The crystals can cause extreme swelling, inflammation, and pain in the affected area, and gout can even lead to eventual damage of cartilage and connective tissues in the impacted joint that must be diagnosed and treated by a foot and ankle doctor. Many liken the pain of gout to the sensation of hundreds of red-hot needles penetrating the joint, which is an unpleasant feeling to say the least.

Gout pain The root cause of gout is tied to several factors that lead to the concentration of uric acid in the bloodstream. For example, dehydration, poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, and other related factors can lead to the onset of gout. In some cases, it can take weeks for the patient to see a return to normal activities. Therefore, management of gout is critical to maintaining a pain-free unrestricted lifestyle. With care from a External link opens in new tab or windowfoot doctor in The Woodlands, TX, and careful management of risk factors, it’s possible for sufferers of gout to avoid its adverse effects. Keep reading to learn how you can prevent gout and reduce the severity of the outbreaks that you do experience.

Modify Your Diet

There are some specific foods that act as triggers for gout by inundating your system with purines, molecules that are found in all living things. Some foods have high concentrations of those purines, which are broken down into uric acid by the liver in humans. Therefore, it’s important for gout sufferers to avoid those purine-rich foods. That list includes fried foods, red meat, shellfish, organ meats, dairy products, and beer. Instead of these foods, eat a diet that is rich in fresh vegetables, lean proteins such as white chicken and fish, and whole grains.

Bowl of cherries Stay Hydrated

In Texas, it’s tough to stay hydrated during the hottest months of the summer. The unrelenting ambient heat leads to significant fluid loss, and if that hydration isn’t routinely replaced throughout the day, dehydration can strike. Dehydration can cause the concentration of serum uric acid levels to spike, which can bring on a gout flare. The problem is well recognized among orthopedic physicians who refer to the summer as “gout season.” Drink additional water in the summer months to ward off gout symptoms.

Alkalize

Since the root cause of gout symptoms is a concentration of uric acid in the blood stream, some sufferers of gout have success by alkalizing their systems. Those with diets high in fresh vegetables have increased alkalinity, but you can also balance your inner pH by ingesting bicarbonate of soda or electrolytes dissolved in drinking water. While you should consult with your physician before beginning a bicarbonate regimen, ingesting alkalizing agents can help balance your body’s pH levels and keep uric acid at bay.

Natural Remedies

There are many natural remedies that can help you conquer gout flares and avoid severe symptoms. Cherries are one of the most powerful weapons against gout. They have been proven to neutralize the effect of uric acid on joints throughout the body. Research indicates that cherries, in any form, taken three times over two days can prevent a gout flare and ward off symptoms. Cherries can be consumed whole, in juice form, or as supplements in capsule form. Ginger attacks gout on two fronts by reducing inflammation in the joints and lowering serum levels of uric acid. Turmeric is another powerful anti-inflammatory that can be enlisted against gout, particularly when it’s blended with unfiltered apple cider vinegar and lemon juice. Apples can be employed as gout fighters as well, as the malic acid in apples is a potent anti-gout compound and the pectin in apples can help bind uric acid and flush it from the system.

If you suffer from the effects of gout, there’s a great deal you can do to prevent gout flares and reduce the severity of those that can’t be avoided. To learn more about how you can win your personal battle with gout, contact Ankle & Foot Specialists of Conroe & The Woodlands by calling (936) 271-3668. 

Источник: http://ankleandfootspecialist.com/healing-your-feet-of-gout-at-home.html

Chinese herbal medicine for gout: a review of the clinical evidence and pharmacological mechanisms

Chinese Medicinevolume 15, Article number: 17 (2020) Cite this article

  • 34k Accesses

  • 21 Citations

  • 1 Altmetric

  • Metrics details

Abstract

Gout is a common arthritis condition due to disorders of purine metabolism and decreased uric acid excretion. Although researchers have carried out various studies on this disease, there are no effective drugs for patients with gout. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), gout pertains the category of Bi pattern due to qi stagnation in the meridians and collaterals. Chinese herbal medicinals has been employed to treat Bi patterns since the ancient China. In recent decades, classical TCM formulas and agents isolated from some Chinese herbal medicinals have been applied to treat gout and have achieved satisfactory effect. In this review, we focus on recent studies of gout in which TCM formulas were applied to treat animal models or to treat patients, and summarize the mechanism of gout from TCM perspective, the clinical application, pharmacological mechanism and the chemical compounds of TCM formulas in treating gout. In conclusion, through this study, we summarized the application principle of TCM formulas in gout treatment and some key issues of current research, and we hope this study will provide some references for applying TCM formulas to treat gout and will lay a foundation for the development of novel formulas for gout treatments.

Background

Gout is a common arthritis condition due to deposition of monosodium urate (MSU), and is closely related to hyperuricemia [1]. Because of disorders of purine metabolism or impaired renal excretion [2, 3], serum uric acid levels rise to be abnormally high, and finally there would be the deposition of uric acid and acute persistent inflammatory reactions in the joints [4]. The most common clinical manifestations of gout are acute burning sensation and swelling of the joints. In some cases, clinical manifestations such as joint damage and renal dysfunction are often present [5]. Gout affects a significant portion of the population worldwide annually [6], and according to the estimates of World Health Organization (WHO), 3.9% of people worldwide are suffering from gout [7]. The acute onset of arthritis, joint malformations, chronic joint injuries and the formation of renal calculus not only reduce the quality of life, but also lead to disability [8].

Currently, although researchers have carried out various studies on this disease, there are no effective drugs for patients with gout. Drugs like colchicines, corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been applied to treat acute onset of gout [9]. These drugs show good effect in the short term, but when used for a long time, gastrointestinal reactions, rashes, systemic vacuities and even renal failure would occur [10, 11]. Besides, such drugs could not prevent, halt or reverse the progression of this complicated disease. Therefore, therapies or drugs which can intervene the development of gout are greatly needed in clinic.

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been applied to treat gout since the ancient China [12]. In TCM, gout is classified as Bi pattern usually due to qi stagnation in the meridians and collaterals. Under the guidance of pattern differentiation, classical TCM formulas and agents isolated from some herbs have been applied to treat gout with satisfactory effect [5]. Some chemical ingredients isolated from these formulas or Chinese herbal medicinals are of multi-target and low toxicity, showing advantages and good prospects in the prevention and treatment of gout (Fig. 1). In this review, the clinical application and pharmacological mechanism of TCM formulas in the treatment of gout are summarized, so as to develop novel formulas for gout treatments (Table 1).

The commonly used ingredients isolated from TCM formulas or Chinese herbal medicinals for the treatment of Gout. Eight herbs have been frequently used for gout treatment with low toxicity and excellent effect under the principle of syndrome differentiation and treatment

Full size image

Full size table

Gout and Bi syndrome patterns

In TCM, gout pertains the category of Bi pattern [13]. In general, the manifestations of Bi pattern are mainly characterized as pain, numbness and heaviness of muscles, tendons and joints or swelling of joints with hot sensation and limitation of movement [14]. According to TCM, the primary causes are the deficiency of healthy qi and the invasion of pathogenic factors like wind, cold, dampness or heat [12]. It is recorded in Treatise on Blood Trouble that the transportation and transformation function of spleen is closely related to the disease mechanism of gout. The deficiency of spleen qi could cause obstruction in the digestion system and lead to the buildup of waste products like uric acid in the blood. In addition, the evidences from clinical trials suggested that the dampness accumulation and blood stasis in the meridian would result in the swelling and pain of joint and the buildup of uric acid in the blood [13]. Because of the individual difference of body constitution and different pathogenic factors, there are various types of Bi pattern. For example, people with yang-deficiency constitution are usually affected by the combined invasion of wind, cold and dampness, and therefore there would be a Bi pattern of cold-dampness type, while people with yang-predominance constitution or yin-deficiency and yang-hyperactivity constitution are usually affected by the combined invasion of wind, dampness and heat, and finally there would be Bi pattern of damp-heat type. Among those factors, dampness and heat are the most common external causes of acute gout, while the deficiency of healthy qi and the invasion of dampness are the most common external causes for gout during remission.

The clinical application of TCM formula in the treatment of gout

In the early stage of Bi pattern, the therapeutic principles are expelling pathogenic factors, for example, dispelling wind, dispersing cold, clearing away heat, eliminating dampness and dredging meridians and collaterals [15]. For the patient suffering from Bi pattern for long time or the patient with weak body constitution, in addition to the therapy for expelling pathogenic factors, tonifying the spleen, liver, kidneys and nourishing blood should also be applied. For patients with gout complicated by phlegm and blood stasis, activating blood circulation, dissipating blood stasis and masses and eliminating phlegm should also be applied (Fig. 2) [16].

The main different types of and the therapeutic principles of gout. There are three different types of gout based on syndrome differentiation

Full size image

The clinical application of TCM formula in treating acute gout

In recent years, TCM formulas are often modified or combined with chemical drugs to treat gout with fewer side effects, and have been regarded as the promising treatments [17]. Among these, Simiao Powder as well as the modified ones like Jiawei Simiao Powder, Tongfeng Decoction, Danxi Tongfeng Decoction are widely used for gout of damp-heat type. Chen et al. [17] found that the TCM formulas combined with chemical drugs showed better effect than chemical drugs applied alone. Similarly, the research from Huang et al. [18] suggested that the improvement of symptom score in the group treated with oral administration of Jiawei Simiao Powder and external application of Jinhuang Cream was more significant than that in the group treated with chemical drugs alone. In the group treated with TCM formula, the effective rate was higher than that in the group treated with chemical drugs, and the adverse reaction rate was significantly lower than that in the group treated with chemical drugs. Based on Simiao Powder, Tongfeng Decoction is invented and widely used. Wu et al. [19] found that after the administration of Tongfeng Decoction and celecoxib capsule, the acute inflammatory indicators in the blood sample of the gout patients were reduced, the inflammatory response was inhibited, the uric acid content was reduced, and the side effects were also reduced. In another clinical study, it was also found that the Danxi Tongfeng Decoction (the modified Simiao Powder) was better than celecoxib capsules in reducing the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum uric acid (SUA) and prolonging the pain relieving time [20]. The above three TCM formulas with the effect of clearing away heat and draining dampness, and dredging the collaterals to stop pain, are modified from Simiao Powder.

Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction is an effective formula with the effect of clearing heat and detoxifying for treating patients with joint pain and obvious swelling. Yu et al. [21] applied modified Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction combined with colchicine tablets to treat the gout arthritis of damp-heat type, and found that the effective rate (86.00%) was higher than that in the control group (66.67%). Meanwhile, the combined application could effectively relieve acute joint pain, reduce swelling, relieve pain and improve joint function. Besides, the combined application of Guizhi Fuling Pill and Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction showed better effect than the combined application of meloxicam tablets and sodium bicarbonate tablets [22]. They have found that the effective rate was 97.60% in the group treated with TCM formulas, which was higher than that in the group treated with chemical drugs, and in the group treated with TCM formulas the pain degree was significantly reduced, the swelling score, SUA and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were lower than those in the group treated with chemical drugs.

Patients with acute attack of gout usually show severe joint pain, high skin temperature, thirsty sensation, white or yellow coating on the tongue, and there are various therapeutic methods or formulas in TCM. Among them, Zhuye Shigao Decoction with the function of clearing away heat and nourishing yin, invigorating the spleen and draining dampness, is of good efficacy on these patients. In a clinical study by Li et al. [23], Zhuye Shigao Decoction combined with colchicine tablets and celecoxib capsules showed better effect than celecoxib capsules, the effective rate was increased from 62.86% to 91.43%, and the gastrointestinal reactions such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea were reduced.

In another clinical reports, it is also illustrated that combined application of Qingre Chubi Decoction and etoricoxib tablets was better than etoricoxib tablets used alone to treat acute gout [24, 25]. Qingre Chubi Decoction, with the function of dispelling wind and draining dampness, and dredging the collaterals to stop pain, has good effect for patients with gout affected by the combined invasion of wind, dampness and heat [24, 25]. There are two formulas named as Qingre Chubi Decoction which are of different compositions and similar effects. One Qingre Chubi Decoction composed of Herba Aristolochiae Mollissimae, Caulis Sinomenii, Radix Cudraniae Cochinchinensi, Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae and Rhizoma Anemarrhenae, could relieve the clinical symptoms and signs effectively, and improve inflammation indexes more obviously than the chemical drugs. Another Qingre Chubi Decoction, composed of Caulis Sinomenii, Caulis Piperis Kadsura, Ramulus Mori, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Herba Lycopi Hirti, Radix et Rhizoma Clematidis, Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae and Lumbricus, has a good therapeutic effect for gout and low incidence of adverse reactions [26, 27].

Wen et al. [28] proposed that the increased level of SUA was due to water-dampness and phlegm-dampness blocking the meridians and collaterals, and dysfunction of qi and blood from TCM perspective. He found that Tongfengshu Capsule could promote blood circulation and urination to reduce SUA with a total effective rate of 90.59%. Tang et al. [29] found that in patients treated with Tongfengshu Capsule combined with chemical drugs, symptoms and signs were relieved more obviously than in patients treated with chemical drugs alone, and the recurrence rate was lower than that in patients treated with chemical drugs 4 or 8 weeks after the treatment.

In the Synopsis of Golden Chamber the therapeutic principles for gout were dispelling cold and draining dampness, and clearing away heat and nourishing yin. Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction is applied in clinic guided by those principle. Zhu et al. [30] found that the pain relieving time, number of relapses within 6 months and the TCM syndrome score in patients treated with the combined application of Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction, celecoxib capsules and colchicine tablets, were lower than those treated with chemical drugs alone. He et al. [31] compared the modified Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction with celecoxib capsules, and found that the pain and swelling were obviously relieved, and the activity restriction scores were significantly improved. Liu et al. [32] used Tongfengan Mixture according to the method of softening hard lumps and dispelling nodes to treat acute gout and found that this combination could reduce SUC, the severity and frequency of attacks. In conclusion, TCM formulas has better clinical efficacy and higher safety than chemical drugs in the treatment of gout.

The clinical application of TCM formulas in the treatment of gout during the remission stage

During the remission stage of gout, the disease mechanism of TCM usually involves spleen deficiency with dampness accumulation. From TCM perspective, the abnormal production and excretion of uric acid is related to the dysfunctional of spleen, and tends to result in the increased content of SUA [33]. Qin et al. [34] used Tongyang Mizhuo Decoction, composed of Lizhong Pills and Wuling Powder to treat gout during the remission stage and found that the total effective rate was 94.4% and the SUA level was significantly reduced after the treatment. Emerging evidences from clinical observations indicated that patients during the remission stage were characterized by spleen deficiency with dampness accumulation. Quzhuo Tongbi Decoction is often used to treat spleen deficiency with dampness accumulation pattern and therefore it is suitable to treat gout during remission stage [33].

According to the TCM theory of “treating disease before its onset”, Peiyuan Huazhuo Decoction, is mainly used to prevent renal damage in patients with gout. TCM doctors found that the symptoms and the renal damage were relieved after the combination therapy, suggesting that the application of Peiyuan Huazhuo Decoction had the function of strengthening healthy qi and inducing diuresis [35].

In conclusion, TCM formulas commonality is promoting the body resistance and eliminating pathogenic factors. Different TCM formulas are applied to achieve the relative equilibrium of yin-yang based on the heterogeneity of body constitution and pathogenic factors.

The pharmacological mechanism of TCM formulas in the treatment of gout

Emerging evidences have suggested that gout caused by monosodium urate deposition is related to disorders of purine metabolism and reduced uric acid excretion, so it is classified as a metabolic rheumatism. However, in recent studies it has been found that the pathogenesis is closely related to the mechanism of “metabolism-inflammation-immunity” [36]. TCM treatment for gout, especially the formulas from Synopsis of Golden Chamber could interfere the mechanism of “metabolism-inflammation-immunity” [37].

The pharmacological mechanism of Simiao Powder and it’s modification in the treatment of gout

Simiao Powder is composed of Cortex Phellodendri Amurensis, Semen Coicis, Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae. All the herbs in the Simiao Powder are also the major ingredients in the Jiawei Simiao Powder, Tongfeng Decoction and Danxi Tongfeng Decoction. According to TCM theory, Cortex Phellodendri Amurensis is bitter in flavor and has curative effects on the kidneys, bladder and large intestine. The main medicinal components of Cortex Phellodendri Amurensis are alkaloids such as berberine, lipoid and sterol [38], with the function of anti-inflammation, bacteriostasis, cellular immune regulation, anti-gout and inhibiting the apoptosis of articular chondrocytes [39]. Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae is pungent and bitter in flavor, and usually works on the kidneys, bladder and large intestine. It has the function of anti-bacterium, anti-inflammation, reducing blood glucose level and suppressing central nervous system [40]. Satoh et al. [41] found that Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae could inhibit the activity of sodium–potassium-ATPase, prevent the absorption of water and sodium ions, and thus to promote urination and excretion.

Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae is sweet in flavor, has the function of reinforcing liver and kidneys, strengthening muscles and bones, and promoting urination, and usually works on the liver and kidneys. It is reported that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae could promote the excretion of uric acid, improve the cellular and humeral immunity as well as the non-specific immune function [42].

The combination of Cortex Phellodendri Amurensis, Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae can reduce the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in synovial tissue. Having the function of anti-inflammatory and inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Semen Coicis Albais could works on regulating purine metabolism and reducing uric acid formation [43]. After Semen Coicis Albais is added, this combination of four herbs becomes Simiao Powder, which has good effect on the patient with gout of dampness-heat type [44]. Wang et al. [45] suggested that modified Sanmiao Powder could inhibit the content of inflammatory factors in the joint fluid of rats with acute gout arthritis.

Although Jiawei Simiao Powder, Tongfeng Decoction and Danxi Tongfeng Decoction are all invented based on Simiao Powder, the pharmacological mechanisms of these TCM formulas are different. Oral administration of Jiawei Simiao Powder and combined with external application of Jinhuang Cream could relieve the inflammation by reducing the levels of ESR, CRP and IL-8 [18]. Tongfeng Decoction could effectively reduce SUA, inhibit inflammatory response, halt the progression of the disease, and have the function of reducing uric acid [19]. Danxi Tongfeng Decoction could reduce ESR and SUA levels, and has a good analgesic effect [20].

The pharmacological mechanism of Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction in the treatment of gout

Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction, composed of Flos Lonicerae, Flos Dendranthematis Indici, Herba Taraxaci Mongolici, Herba Violae Philippicae and Nudicaulous Grounsel Herb, is firstly recorded in Golden Mirror of the Medical Tradition. It is recorded that Flos Lonicerae, Flos Dendranthematis Indici and Nudicaulous Grounsel Herb have the function of anti-inflammation and immunomodulation [46,47,48]. Some researchers find that Herba Taraxaci Mongolici has the function of anti-bacteria, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, diuresis, anti-allergy, promoting immunity, and is beneficial for the stomach [49]. Because of its strong effect of anti-pathogenic microorganisms, Herba Violae Philippicae is often used in the treatment of ulcers and carbuncle with symptoms like swelling and pain [50]. It is believed that Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction can enhance the immunity of diseased mice and reduce the IL-10 to the normal level [51]. Besides, another report also illustrates that Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction could increase the phagocyte index and phagocyte rate of macrophages, adjust the balance of flora and thus enhance the immune function [52].

The pharmacological mechanism of Zhuye Shigao Decoction in the treatment of gout

Zhuye Shigao Decoction is composed of Folium Phyllostachydis Henonis, Gypsum Fibrosum, Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum, Radix Ginseng, Radix Ophiopogonis, Oryza Sativa L., Radix Ophiopogonis Japonicir and Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae. Wang et al. [53] held that gout was caused by dampness accumulation and heat blocking the meridians and collaterals, so he adopted the methods of clearing heat and resolving dampness, unblocking the collaterals and relieving pain, and applied Zhuye Shigao Decoction for the treatment. Chen et al. [54] found that after being treated with modified Zhuye Shigao Decoction, serum levels of IL-1β and caspase-1 were reduced, and the expression levels of pro-IL-1 and pro-caspase-1 were down-regulated, suggesting that the modified Zhuye Shigao Decoction could inhibit the inflammation induced by sodium urate crystals, which may be related to the intervention of IL-1 signaling pathway.

The pharmacological mechanism of Qingre Chubi Decoction in the treatment of gout

There are two formulas named as Qingre Chubi Decoction which are of different compositions and similar effects. In one Qingre Chubi Decoction, the ingredients include Herba Aristolochiae Mollissimae, Caulis Sinomenii, Radix Cudraniae Cochinchinensi, Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae, and Rhizoma Anemarrhenae. Another Qingre Chubi Decoction is composed of Caulis Sinomenii, Caulis Piperis Kadsura, Ramulus Mori, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae Herba Lycopi Hirtiaa, Radix et Rhizoma Clematidis, Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae and Lumbricus. Wang et al. [55] confirmed that the first Qingre Chubi Decoction could relieve the symptoms of patients such as feverish sensation, joint swelling and pain, and reduce the inflammatory indicators such as ESR and CRP. Some studies suggested that Qingre Chubi Decoction might inhibit the release of IL-1β and TNF-α to ameliorate the acute inflammatory response of gout [56]. Additionally, Qingre Chubi Decoction inhibited the proliferation of THP-1 cells stimulated by MSU crystals. The inhibition of monocyte activity and IL-1β may be one of the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of Qingre Chubi Decoction [57].

The pharmacological mechanism of Tongfengshu Capsule in the treatment of gout

Tongfengshu Capsule, composed of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei Palmati, Semen Plantaginis, Rhizoma Alismatis, Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, is a Chinese patent medicine. Rheum emodin, one chemical component from Radix et Rhizoma Rhei Palmati, could inhibit the expression of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and IL-1 mRNAs [58] and inhibit the activation of extra cellular signal–regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and p38 nitrogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) signaling pathways by inhibiting the expression of ERK1/2 nucleus and p38MAPK, thereby reducing the release of inflammatory factors [59]. Semen Plantaginis and Rhizoma Alismatis could promote urination, and reduce swelling and pain. Among them, Semen Plantaginis, rich in mullein glycolic anhydride, could promote uric acid secretion, reduce the creatinine level, scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improve renal function [60]. In addition, it is reported that the ethanol extract of Rhizoma Alismatis could reduce SUA level without damaging renal function [61]. Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae has the function of dispelling wind, relieving pain and inducing diuresis to alleviate edema. Tetrandrine, the active ingredient of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae could inhibit the inflammatory response of cells, and this anti-inflammation mechanism may be related to inhibiting nuclear factors such as NF-κB, reducing IL-6 and TNF-α levels, and promoting the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 [62]. It is also reported that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae could increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduce serum lipid peroxide level, and regulate immunity and metabolism of the body [63]. Based on the previous study, the anti-inflammation mechanism of Tongfengshu Capsule may be related to inhibiting the synthesis or release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and resisting lipid peroxidation [64]. It was also found that Tongfengshu capsule could significantly relieve symptoms of joints in rats with acute gout arthritis, suggesting the mechanism might be related to reducing IL-1β and TNF-α levels, inhibiting the expression of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) and nitrogen oxide (NO), and promoting the release of SOD [65]. Besides, some researchers proposed that the therapeutic mechanism of Tongfengshu Capsule in the treatment of gout arthritis was related to the down-regulation of serum levels of high mobility group protein 1 (HMGB l) and receptor for advanced glycosylation end-products (RAGE) in patients with gout [65].

The pharmacological mechanism of Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction in the treatment of gout

Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction, firstly recorded in the TCM classics, Synopsis of the Golden Chamber, is composed of Herba Ephedrae Sinicae, Ramulus Cinnamomi, Radix Saposhnikoviae, Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata, Rhizoma Anemarrhenae, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens. Herba Ephedrae Sinicae, could scavenge ROS and had significant antioxidant effects [65]. In addition to anti-bacterium, anti-virus and anti-inflammation effects [66, 67], Ramulus Cinnamomi and Radix Saposhnikoviae can also stimulate the secretion of saliva and gastric juice and stimulate sweat glands to dissipate heat [68]. Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome and Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata have the function of warming channels to dispel coldness. It is recorded that Rhizoma Anemarrhenae and Radix Paeoniae Alba could nourish yin and clear heat. It took the researchers 5 years to find that Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction has the function of relieving pain, anti-inflammation and healing bone injury. Besides, it also could induce apoptosis of synovial cell, regulate immunity, and promote uric acid excretion, and protect renal function to treat gout arthritis [69]. Some researchers proposed that the mechanism underlying the Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction in the treatment of gout arthritis was related to reducing the expression of Toll-like receptor (TRL)-2, TRL-4, NLRP3 receptor, myeloid differentiation factor (MyD)88 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), increasing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and inhibitor-κB (IκB)-α, inhibiting the differentiation and maturation of IL-1β and the activation of NF-κB [70].

The pharmacological mechanism of Tongfengan Mixture in the treatment of gout

Tongfengan Mixture, composed of Herba Lysimachiae, Semen Sinapis, Thallus Ulvae Fasciata, Spora Lygodii, Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae, Flos Carthami, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Pseudobullbus Cremastrae, Rhizoma Alismatis and Rhizoma Corydalis, has the function of softening hardness and dissipating mass. It is found that in the rat models, Tongfengan Mixture can relieve the swelling, reduce the level of MSU crystals in the ankle joints, and reduce the inflammatory reaction, which may be achieved by reducing the inflammatory reaction in the blood [71]. Liu et al. [32] suggested that Tongfeng Mixture could inhibit the secretion of inflammatory factors like IL-1β, TNF-α and NF-κB in the synovial tissue of the ankle joint of rats by clearing away urate crystals, and reducing the inflammation.

The pharmacological mechanism of Quzhuo Tongbi Decoction in the treatment of gout

There are two formulas name as Quzhuo Tongbi Decoction which are of different compositions and similar effects. In one Quzhuo Tongbi Decoction, the ingredients include Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae, Rhizoma Dioscoreae, Stigma Maydis, Semen Coicis, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, Herba Taxilli Chinensis, Rhizoma Corydalis, Folium Pyrrosiae and Semen Plantaginis. Another Quzhuo Tongbi Decoction is composed of Radix Aconiti, Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae, Radix Bupleuri Chinensi, Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome, Radix Astragali, Caulis Lonicerae and Radix Paeoniae Rubra. It has been documented that some intestinal bacteria could cause abnormal uric acid metabolism [72]. Zhu et al. [73] found that the medium and high dosage of the first Quzhuo Tongbi Decoction can reduce the level of uric acid, serum creatinine and xanthine oxidase (XOD). Besides, it could also relieve inflammation symptoms, inhibit the production of PGE2, relieve pain sensation by blocking the sensation of peripheral nerves to pain stimuli [74].

The pharmacological mechanism of Peiyuan Huazhuo Decoction in the treatment of gout

Peiyuan Huazhuo Decoction is composed of Rhizoma Polygonatum Sibirici, Semen Cuscutae, Radix Astragali, Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae, Semen Coicis and Rhizoma Corydalis. Yang et al. [75] found that Radix Astragali could increase the glomerular filtration rate. It was also found that Rhizoma Polygonatum Sibirici not only had a good effect of lowering SUA levels, but also reduced blood lipid and glucose [35]. The herbs in this formula work together to treat lipid metabolism disorders, inhibit inflammatory reactions, prevent gout attack, and prevent renal damage in patients with gout.

Conclusions and perspective

The etiology of gout is complex and there are various hypotheses about its pathogenesis. According to the disease mechanism of TCM, therapeutic principles like dispelling wind and cold, clearing away heat and dampness, and dredging meridians and collaterals are often applied to treat acute gout [16]. During the remission stage, benefiting qi, nourishing blood and tonifying spleen and kidney are often applied (Fig. 3) [44]. Inhibiting inflammatory factors in joint fluid, reducing blood uric and promotion of uric acid excretion, enhancing immune function and blocking the sensation of peripheral nerve are the main mechanism underly TCM treatment for gout (Fig. 4).

The main pharmacological mechanisms of the treatment of acute gout and gout during the remission. The disease of gout consists of the attack stage and remission stage, which should be treated differently based on disease mechanism of TCM

Full size image

The main TCM formulas and the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of the treatment of gout. There are two ways to reduce the SUA level: one is to promote uric acid excretion, and the other is to reduce uric acid production

Full size image

Compared with chemical drugs like colchicine, eloricoxib and celecoxib, TCM herbs have advantages in slowing down the severity and frequency of attacks, reducing the concentration of uric acid in blood with fewer side effects. Although TCM has a strong advantage in the treatment of gout, the application of TCM herbs or formulas should follow the principle of syndrome differentiation and treatment from TCM perspective.

In this review, we focus on the research data from animal and clinical studies in recent years, and summarize the TCM theory of gout, the clinical application, pharmacological mechanism and the chemical compounds of TCM formulas for gout treatment. By doing this we hope to help the researchers on exploring the mechanism of TCM treatment for gout and to develop agents more effectively for gout treatment.

Availability of data and materials

All the data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Abbreviations

Monosodium urate

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Traditional Chinese medicine

Tumor necrosis factor

Interleukin

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

C-reaction protein CRP

NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

Reactive oxygen species

Superoxide dismutase

Malonic dialdehyde

Nitrogen oxide

High mobility group protein 1

Receptor for advanced glycosylation end-products

Serum uric acid

Toll-like receptor

Myeloid differentiation

Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

Prostaglandin E2

Xanthine oxidase

References

  1. 1.

    Zeng XF, Chen YL. 2016 China gout diagnosis and treatment guide. Zhejiang Med J. 2017;39(21):1823–32.

    Google Scholar

  2. 2.

    Yu KH, Chen DY, Chen JH, Chen SY, Chen SM, Cheng TT, et al. Management of gout and hyperuricemia: multidisciplinary consensus in Taiwan. Int J Rheum Dis. 2018;21(4):772–87.

    CASPubMedArticlePubMed Central Google Scholar

  3. 3.

    Jiang Y, Lin Y, Hu YJ, Song XJ, Pan HH, Zhang HJ. Caffeoylquinic acid derivatives rich extract from Gnaphalium pensylvanicum willd, Ameliorates hyperuricemia and acute gouty arthritis in animal model. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17(1):320.

    PubMedPubMed CentralArticleCAS Google Scholar

  4. 4.

    Sivera F, Wechalekar MD, Andres M, Buchbinder R, Carmona L. Interleukin-1 inhibitors for acute gout. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;9:Cd009993.

    Google Scholar

  5. 5.

    Xiao N, Chen H, He SY, Xue CX, Sui H, Chen J, et al. Evaluating the efficacy and adverse effects of clearing heat and removing dampness method of traditional Chinese medicine by comparison with western medicine in patients with gout. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018;2018:8591349.

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  6. 6.

    Aung T, Myung G, FitzGerald JD. Treatment approaches and adherence to urate-lowering therapy for patients with gout. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2017;11:795–800.

    PubMedPubMed CentralArticle Google Scholar

  7. 7.

    Choi HK, Curhan G. Gout: epidemiology and lifestyle choices. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2005;17(3):341–5.

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  8. 8.

    Zhang Y, Zhang H, Chang D, Guo F, Pan H, Yang Y. Metabolomics approach by (1)H NMR spectroscopy of serum reveals progression axes for asymptomatic hyperuricemia and gout. Arthritis Res Ther. 2018;20(1):111.

    PubMedPubMed CentralArticleCAS Google Scholar

  9. 9.

    Qaseem A, Harris RP, Forciea MA. Management of acute and recurrent gout: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017;166(1):58–68.

    PubMedArticlePubMed Central Google Scholar

  10. 10.

    Smith HS, Bracken D, Smith JM. Gout: current insights and future perspectives. J Pain. 2011;12(11):1113–29.

    CASPubMedArticlePubMed Central Google Scholar

  11. 11.

    Perez-Ruiz F, Dalbeth N, Bardin T. A review of uric acid, crystal deposition disease, and gout. Adv Ther. 2015;32(1):31–41.

    CASPubMedArticlePubMed Central Google Scholar

  12. 12.

    Jia L, Wang RS, He DY. Traditional Chinese and western medicine understanding of gout pathogenesis. Rheum Arthritis. 2018;7(02):61–4.

    Google Scholar

  13. 13.

    Jin CY, Xie HY, Xie CG. Discussion on the pathogenesis of gout in traditional Chinese medicine. Guangming J Chin Med. 2018;33(01):44–6.

    CAS Google Scholar

  14. 14.

    Liu RR, Yue RS, Zhao WW, Wang J, Yang MY, Chen X. Analysis of gout syndrome from “Gas Pain, Shape Swollen” of Neijing. J Sichuan Tradit Chin Med. 2018;36(10):1–3.

    Google Scholar

  15. 15.

    Zhang P, Huang SF, Fan GJ. Brief introduction to professor Fan Guanjie’s traditional Chinese medicine treatment of gout. Lishizhen Med Materia Medica Res. 2018;29(01):210–1.

    Google Scholar

  16. 16.

    Li YB, Cui M, Yang Y, Yu Q, Zhu XB, Tian Y, et al. Similarity of traditional Chinese medicine formula. Chin Arch Tradit Chin Med. 2012;30(05):1096–7.

    CAS Google Scholar

  17. 17.

    Chen J. Clinical effect of Jiawei Simiao pills in the treatment of gouty arthritis. J Emerg Tradit Chin Med. 2014;23(03):532–3.

    Google Scholar

  18. 18.

    Huang F, Ma WF. Clinical and analgesic effect of Jiawei Simiao San for oral administration together with external application of Jinhuang Cream on acute gouty arthritis. J Emerg Tradit Chin Med. 2017;26(03):526–9.

    Google Scholar

  19. 19.

    Wu HH, Lyu X, Guo LZ, Ji B. Treatment of acute gout attack with integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine. J Changchun Univ Chin Med. 2019;35(01):73–5.

    CAS Google Scholar

  20. 20.

    Shen P, Li WM, Shen ZD. Clinical effect of Jiawei Simiao pills in the treatment of gout. J Math Med. 2018;31(05):761–2.

    Google Scholar

  21. 21.

    Yu WJ, Liang Y, Li M, Sha H, Xu J, Wang L, et al. Clinical study on treatment of damp-heating gouty arthritis with modified Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction combined with small dose of colchicine. J Sichuan Tradit Chin Med. 2019;37(02):119–21.

    Google Scholar

  22. 22.

    Kang HY. Clinical effect of modified Guizhi Fuling Pill and Wuwei Xiaoduyin in the treatment of gout. Pharmacol Clin Chin Materia Medica. 2015;31(02):99–101.

    Google Scholar

  23. 23.

    Li ZJ. Randomized parallel controlled study of Zhuye Shigao Decoction in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis. J Pract Tradit Chin Intern Med. 2019;33(01):39–41.

    Google Scholar

  24. 24.

    Lao BN, Sun WF, Li J. Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of Qingre Chubi Decoction in treating acute gout. J Guangzhou Univ Tradit Chin Med. 2016;33(06):794–9.

    Google Scholar

  25. 25.

    Xi HQ. Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of Qingre Chubi Decoction in treating acute gout. Clin Med. 2017;37(08):117–9.

    Google Scholar

  26. 26.

    Lin HG, Xu RF, Xu HB. Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of Qingre Chubi Decoction in treating acute gout. J Guangxi Univ Chin Med. 2018;21(04):22–4.

    Google Scholar

  27. 27.

    Li HY. Safety and clinical efficacy of the Qingre Chubi Decoction on acute gout. Clin J Chin Med. 2018;10(08):129–30.

    Google Scholar

  28. 28.

    Wang WJ, Wen SD. Professor Wen Shaodun’s experience in treating gout. World Latest Med Inf. 2018;18(92):217–9.

    CAS Google Scholar

  29. 29.

    Tang ZY, Chen CT. Efficacy and mechanism of ‘Tongfengshu Capsule’ in the treatment of gouty arthritis. Health Res. 2018;38(01):79-81+84.

    Google Scholar

  30. 30.

    Zhu HM. Forty-five cases of acute gouty arthritis with wind-cold-dampness arthralgia syndrome treated with supplemented cinnamon twig and peony Decoction plus Rhizoma Anemarrhenae. Henan Tradit Chin Med. 2019;39(04):508–11.

    Google Scholar

  31. 31.

    He XH, Xu ZX, He YT. Observation for 30 cases of gouty arthritis treated with modified Jiawei Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction. Chin J Exp Tradit Med Formulae. 2013;19(19):326–8.

    Google Scholar

  32. 32.

    Liu HY, Wang L. Effects of stone elimination method on the expressions of synovial tissue cytokines in the rats with acute gout. World J Integr Tradit West Med. 2018;13(10):1385–9.

    Google Scholar

  33. 33.

    Liu FF, Yang W, Li HC, Wen CP. Based on the theory of “Internal retention pathogenic dampness lead to bi” to discuss the relationship between dampness and gout. J Emerg Tradit Chin Med. 2015;24(01):96–8.

    Google Scholar

  34. 34.

    Qin XP, Zhao YC, He W. Clinical study on 36 patients with spleen-yang deficiency of gout during remission period treated by Tongyang Xiezhuo Decoction. J Pract Tradit Chin Med. 2019;35(06):674–5.

    Google Scholar

  35. 35.

    Wang DJ, Hong QX, Su L. Clinical observation on “Peiyuan Huazhuo Formula” combined with benzbromarone for the treatment of early renal injury in gout. Shanghai J Tradit Chin Med. 2014;48(12):39–41.

    Google Scholar

  36. 36.

    Akahoshi T. Pathological mechanisms of gouty arthritis, Nihon rinsho. Japn J Clin Med. 2008;66(4):705–10.

    Google Scholar

  37. 37.

    Dang WT, Zhou JG, Xie WG. Discussion on the pathogenesis of “metabolism-inflammation-immunity” of gout from synopsis of golden chamber. Liaoning J Tradit Chin Med. 2014;41(10):2090–3.

    Google Scholar

  38. 38.

    Wang Z, Zheng H, Hao HQ. Research on treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with traditional Chinese Medicine Ermiao San. World J Integr Tradit West Med. 2019;14(04):590–2.

    Google Scholar

  39. 39.

    Gao Y, Zhou HF, Lu D, Qian F. Chemical composition analysis and pharmacological research progress of cortex phellodendri. Asia-Pac Tradit Med. 2019;15(04):207–9.

Источник: https://cmjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13020-020-0297-y
7. Myth: People with gout should avoid all proteins. Truth: Animal proteins have the highest levels of purines, so it’s better to eat vegetable protein like beans and peas, which may also help you lose weight.   In fact, a 2010 review in a rheumatology journal notes that protein rich foods like dairy products, nuts, beans, peas and whole grains are healthy choices for people with gout, reducing the risk of heart disease, and possibly lowering the risk of insulin resistance. For the 8 Myths About Gout slideshow.

Photo by Getty Images

Changing your diet can help reduce the frequency of gout attacks.

7. Myth: Once you've got gout, lifestyle changes don't really help.

Truth: Lifestyle changes can reduce both the severity and frequency of attacks. For starters, when people lose weight, they often have fewer attacks, says Reveille.

Animal proteins have a higher level of purines, so it's better to eat vegetable proteins like beans and peas.

In fact, a 2010 review in the rheumatology journal Current Opinion in Rheumatology notes that protein-rich foods such as dairy products, nuts, beans, peas and whole grains are healthy choices for people with gout, reducing the risk of heart disease and possibly lowering the risk of insulin resistance.

Baraf says that he asks patients to abstain from alcohol during the first six months of treatment, until medications have stabilized uric acid levels. After that, he says, it's fine to drink — in moderation.

Dorothy Foltz-Gray is a freelance writer who lives in North Carolina.

Remember to go to the AARP home page every day for tips on keeping healthy and sharp, and great deals.

Источник: https://www.aarp.org/health/conditions-treatments/info-08-2012/gout-myths-vs-facts.html
home remedy for gout in thumb

Chinese herbal medicine for gout: a review of the clinical evidence and pharmacological mechanisms

Chinese Medicinevolume 15, Article number: 17 (2020) home remedy for gout in thumb Cite this article

  • 34k Accesses

  • 21 Citations

  • 1 Altmetric

  • Metrics details

Abstract

Gout is a common arthritis condition due to disorders of home remedy for gout in thumb metabolism and decreased uric acid excretion. Although researchers have carried out various studies on this disease, there are no effective drugs for patients with gout. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), gout pertains the category of Bi pattern due to qi stagnation in the meridians and collaterals. Chinese herbal medicinals has been employed to treat Bi patterns since the ancient China. In recent decades, classical TCM formulas and agents isolated from some Chinese herbal medicinals have been applied to treat gout and have achieved satisfactory effect. In this review, we focus on recent studies of gout in which TCM formulas were applied to treat animal models or to treat patients, and summarize the mechanism of gout from TCM perspective, the clinical application, pharmacological mechanism and the chemical compounds of TCM formulas in treating gout. In conclusion, through this study, we summarized the application principle of TCM formulas in gout treatment and some key issues of current research, and we hope this study will provide some references for applying TCM formulas to treat gout and will lay a foundation for the development of novel formulas for gout treatments.

Background

Gout is a common arthritis condition due to deposition of monosodium urate (MSU), and is closely related to hyperuricemia [1]. Because of disorders of purine metabolism or impaired renal excretion [2, 3], serum uric acid levels rise to be abnormally high, and finally there would be the deposition of uric acid and acute persistent inflammatory reactions in the joints [4]. The most common clinical manifestations of gout are acute burning sensation and swelling of the joints. In some cases, clinical manifestations such as joint damage and renal dysfunction are often present [5]. Gout affects a significant portion of the population worldwide annually [6], and according to the estimates of World Health Organization (WHO), 3.9% of people worldwide are suffering from gout [7]. The acute onset of arthritis, joint malformations, chronic joint injuries and the formation of renal calculus not only reduce the quality of life, but also lead to disability [8].

Currently, although researchers have carried out various studies on this disease, there are no effective drugs for patients with gout. Drugs like colchicines, corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been applied to treat acute onset of gout [9]. These drugs show good effect in the short term, but when used for a long time, gastrointestinal reactions, rashes, systemic vacuities and even renal failure would occur [10, 11]. Besides, such drugs could not prevent, halt or reverse the progression of this complicated disease. Therefore, therapies or drugs which can intervene the development of gout are greatly needed in clinic.

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been applied to treat gout since the ancient China [12]. In TCM, gout is classified as Bi pattern usually due to qi stagnation in the meridians and collaterals. Under the guidance of pattern differentiation, classical TCM formulas and agents isolated from some herbs have been applied to treat gout with satisfactory effect [5]. Some chemical ingredients isolated from these formulas or Chinese herbal medicinals are of multi-target and huntington national bank login toxicity, showing advantages and good prospects in the prevention and treatment of gout (Fig. 1). In this review, the clinical application and pharmacological mechanism of TCM formulas in the treatment of gout are summarized, so as to develop novel formulas for gout treatments (Table 1).

The commonly used ingredients isolated from TCM formulas or Chinese herbal medicinals for the treatment of Gout. Eight herbs have been frequently used for gout treatment with low toxicity and excellent effect under the principle of syndrome differentiation and treatment

Full size image

Full size table

Gout and Bi syndrome patterns

In TCM, gout pertains the category of Bi pattern [13]. In general, the manifestations of Bi pattern are mainly characterized as pain, numbness and heaviness of muscles, tendons and joints or swelling of joints with hot sensation and limitation of movement [14]. According to TCM, the primary causes are the deficiency of healthy qi and the invasion of pathogenic factors like wind, cold, dampness or heat [12]. It is recorded in Treatise on Blood Trouble that the transportation and transformation function of spleen is closely related to the disease mechanism of gout. The deficiency of spleen qi could cause obstruction in the digestion system and lead to the buildup of waste products like uric acid in the blood. In addition, the evidences from clinical trials suggested that the dampness accumulation and blood stasis in the meridian would result in the swelling and pain of joint and the buildup of uric acid in the blood [13]. Because of the individual difference of body constitution and different pathogenic factors, there are various types of Bi pattern. For example, people with yang-deficiency constitution are usually affected by the combined invasion of wind, cold and dampness, and therefore there would be a Bi pattern of cold-dampness type, while people with yang-predominance constitution or yin-deficiency and yang-hyperactivity constitution are usually affected by the combined invasion of wind, dampness and heat, and finally there would be Bi pattern of damp-heat type. Among those factors, dampness and heat are the most common external causes of acute gout, while the deficiency of healthy qi and the invasion of dampness are the most common external causes for gout during remission.

The clinical application of TCM formula in the treatment of gout

In the early stage of Bi pattern, the therapeutic principles are expelling pathogenic factors, for example, dispelling wind, dispersing cold, clearing away heat, eliminating dampness and dredging meridians and collaterals [15]. For the patient suffering from Bi pattern for long time or the patient with weak body constitution, in addition to the therapy for expelling pathogenic factors, tonifying the spleen, liver, kidneys and nourishing blood should also be applied. For patients with gout complicated by phlegm and blood stasis, activating blood circulation, dissipating blood stasis and masses and eliminating phlegm should also be applied (Fig. 2) [16].

The main different types of and the therapeutic principles of gout. There are three different types of gout based on syndrome differentiation

Full size image

The clinical application of TCM formula in treating acute gout

In recent years, TCM formulas are often modified or combined with chemical drugs to treat gout with fewer side effects, and have been regarded as the promising treatments [17]. Among these, Simiao Powder as well as the modified ones like Jiawei Simiao Powder, Tongfeng Decoction, Danxi Tongfeng Decoction are widely used for gout of damp-heat type. Chen et al. [17] found that the TCM formulas combined with chemical drugs showed better effect than chemical drugs applied alone. Similarly, the research from Huang et al. [18] suggested that the improvement of symptom score in the group treated with oral administration of Jiawei Simiao Powder and external application of Jinhuang Cream was more significant than that in the group treated with chemical drugs alone. In the group treated with TCM formula, the effective rate was higher than that in the group treated with chemical drugs, and the adverse reaction rate was significantly lower than that in the group treated with chemical drugs. Based on Simiao Powder, Tongfeng Decoction is invented and widely used. Wu et al. [19] found that after the administration of Tongfeng Decoction and celecoxib capsule, the acute inflammatory indicators in the blood sample of the gout patients were reduced, the inflammatory response was inhibited, the uric acid content was reduced, and the side effects were also reduced. In another clinical study, it was also found that the Danxi Tongfeng Decoction (the modified Simiao Powder) was better than celecoxib capsules in reducing the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum uric acid (SUA) and prolonging the pain relieving time [20]. The above three TCM formulas with the effect of clearing away heat and draining dampness, and dredging the collaterals to stop pain, are modified from Simiao Powder.

Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction is an effective formula with the effect of clearing heat and detoxifying for treating patients with joint pain and obvious swelling. Yu et al. [21] applied modified Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction combined with colchicine tablets to treat the gout arthritis of damp-heat type, and found that the effective rate (86.00%) was higher than that in the control group (66.67%). Meanwhile, the combined application could effectively relieve acute joint pain, reduce swelling, relieve pain and improve joint function. Besides, the combined application of Guizhi Fuling Pill and Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction showed better effect than the combined application of meloxicam tablets and sodium bicarbonate tablets [22]. They have found that the effective rate was 97.60% in the group treated with TCM formulas, which was higher than that in the group treated with chemical drugs, and in the group treated with TCM formulas the pain degree was significantly reduced, the swelling score, SUA and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were lower than those in the group treated with chemical drugs.

Patients with acute attack of gout usually show severe joint pain, high skin temperature, thirsty sensation, white or yellow coating on the tongue, and there are various therapeutic methods or formulas in TCM. Among them, Zhuye Shigao Decoction with the function of clearing away heat and nourishing yin, invigorating the spleen and draining dampness, is of good efficacy on these patients. In a clinical study by Li et al. [23], Zhuye Shigao Decoction combined with colchicine tablets and celecoxib capsules showed better effect than celecoxib capsules, the effective rate was increased from 62.86% to 91.43%, and the gastrointestinal reactions such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea were reduced.

In another clinical reports, it is also illustrated that combined application of Qingre Chubi Decoction and etoricoxib tablets was better than etoricoxib tablets used alone to treat acute gout [24, 25]. Qingre Chubi Decoction, with the function of dispelling wind and draining dampness, and dredging the collaterals to stop pain, has good effect for patients with gout affected by the combined invasion of wind, dampness and heat [24, 25]. There are two formulas named as Qingre Chubi Decoction which are of different compositions and similar effects. One Qingre Chubi Decoction composed of Herba Aristolochiae Mollissimae, Caulis Sinomenii, Radix Cudraniae Cochinchinensi, Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae and Rhizoma Anemarrhenae, could relieve the clinical symptoms and signs effectively, and improve inflammation indexes more obviously than the chemical drugs. Another Qingre Chubi Decoction, composed of Caulis Sinomenii, Caulis Piperis Kadsura, Ramulus Mori, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Herba Lycopi Hirti, Radix et Rhizoma Clematidis, Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae and Lumbricus, has a good therapeutic effect for gout and low incidence of adverse reactions [26, 27].

Wen et al. [28] proposed that the increased level of SUA was due to water-dampness and phlegm-dampness blocking the meridians and collaterals, and dysfunction of qi and blood from TCM perspective. He found that Tongfengshu Capsule could promote blood circulation and urination to reduce SUA with a total effective rate of 90.59%. Tang et al. [29] found that in patients treated with Tongfengshu Capsule combined with chemical drugs, symptoms and signs were relieved more obviously than in patients treated with chemical drugs alone, and the recurrence rate was lower than that in patients treated with chemical drugs 4 or 8 weeks after the treatment.

In the Synopsis of Golden Chamber the therapeutic principles for gout were dispelling cold and draining dampness, and clearing away heat and nourishing yin. Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction is applied in clinic guided by those principle. Zhu et al. [30] found that the pain relieving time, number of relapses within 6 months and the TCM syndrome score in patients treated with the combined application of Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction, celecoxib capsules and colchicine tablets, were lower than those treated with chemical drugs alone. He et al. [31] compared the modified Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction with celecoxib capsules, and found that the pain and swelling were obviously relieved, and the activity restriction scores were significantly improved. Liu et al. [32] used Tongfengan Best beaches in south america according to the method of softening hard lumps and dispelling nodes to treat acute gout and found that this combination could reduce SUC, the severity and frequency of attacks. In conclusion, TCM formulas has better clinical efficacy and higher safety than audrey hepburn breakfast at tiffanys costume drugs in the treatment of gout.

The clinical application of TCM formulas in the treatment of gout during the remission stage

During the remission stage of gout, the disease mechanism of TCM usually involves spleen deficiency with dampness accumulation. From TCM perspective, the abnormal production and excretion of uric acid is related to the dysfunctional of spleen, and tends to result in the increased content of SUA [33]. Qin et al. [34] used Tongyang Mizhuo Decoction, composed of Lizhong Pills and Wuling Powder to treat gout during the remission stage and found that the total effective rate was 94.4% and the SUA level was significantly reduced after the treatment. Emerging evidences from clinical observations indicated that patients during the remission stage were characterized by spleen deficiency with dampness accumulation. Quzhuo Tongbi Decoction is often used to treat spleen deficiency with dampness accumulation pattern and therefore it is suitable to treat gout during remission stage [33].

According to the TCM theory of “treating disease before its onset”, Peiyuan Huazhuo Decoction, is mainly used to prevent renal damage in patients with gout. TCM doctors found that the symptoms and the renal damage were relieved after the combination therapy, suggesting that the application of Peiyuan Huazhuo Decoction had the function of strengthening healthy qi and inducing diuresis [35].

In conclusion, TCM formulas commonality is promoting the body resistance and eliminating pathogenic factors. Different TCM formulas are applied to achieve the relative equilibrium of yin-yang based on the heterogeneity of body constitution and pathogenic factors.

The pharmacological mechanism of TCM formulas in the treatment of gout

Emerging evidences have suggested that gout caused by monosodium urate deposition is related to disorders of purine metabolism and reduced uric acid excretion, so it is classified as a metabolic rheumatism. However, in recent studies it has been found that the pathogenesis is closely related to the mechanism of “metabolism-inflammation-immunity” [36]. TCM treatment for gout, especially the formulas from Synopsis of Golden Chamber could interfere the mechanism of “metabolism-inflammation-immunity” [37].

The pharmacological mechanism of Simiao Powder and it’s modification in the treatment of gout

Simiao Powder is composed of Cortex Phellodendri Amurensis, Semen Coicis, Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae. All the herbs in the Simiao Powder are also the major ingredients in the Jiawei Simiao Powder, Tongfeng Decoction and Danxi Tongfeng Decoction. According to TCM theory, Cortex Phellodendri Amurensis is bitter in flavor and has curative effects on the kidneys, bladder and large intestine. The main medicinal components of Cortex Phellodendri Amurensis are alkaloids such as berberine, lipoid and sterol [38], with the function of anti-inflammation, bacteriostasis, cellular immune regulation, anti-gout and inhibiting the apoptosis of articular chondrocytes [39]. Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae is pungent and bitter in flavor, and usually works on the kidneys, bladder and large intestine. It has the function of home remedy for gout in thumb, anti-inflammation, reducing blood glucose level and suppressing central nervous system [40]. Satoh et al. [41] found that Rhizoma Atractylodis Home remedy for gout in thumb could inhibit the activity of sodium–potassium-ATPase, prevent home remedy for gout in thumb absorption of water and sodium ions, and thus to promote urination and excretion.

Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae is sweet in flavor, has the function of reinforcing liver and kidneys, strengthening muscles and bones, and promoting urination, and usually works on the liver and kidneys. It is reported that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae could promote the excretion of uric acid, improve the cellular and humeral immunity as well as the non-specific immune function [42].

The combination of Cortex Phellodendri Amurensis, Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae can reduce the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in synovial tissue. Having the function of anti-inflammatory and inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Semen Coicis Albais could works on regulating purine metabolism and reducing uric acid formation [43]. After Semen Coicis Albais is added, this combination of four herbs becomes Simiao Powder, which has good effect on the patient with gout of dampness-heat type [44]. Wang et al. [45] suggested that modified Sanmiao Powder could inhibit the content of inflammatory factors in the joint fluid of rats with acute gout arthritis.

Although Jiawei Simiao Powder, Tongfeng Decoction and Danxi Tongfeng Decoction are all invented based on Simiao Powder, the pharmacological mechanisms of these TCM formulas are different. Oral administration of Jiawei Simiao Powder and combined with external application of Jinhuang Cream could relieve the inflammation by reducing the levels of ESR, CRP and IL-8 [18]. Tongfeng Decoction could effectively reduce SUA, inhibit inflammatory response, halt the progression of the disease, and have the function of reducing uric acid [19]. Danxi Tongfeng Decoction could reduce ESR and SUA levels, and has a good analgesic effect [20].

The pharmacological mechanism of Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction in the treatment of gout

Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction, composed of Flos Lonicerae, Flos Dendranthematis Indici, Herba Taraxaci Mongolici, Herba Violae Philippicae and Nudicaulous Grounsel Herb, is firstly recorded in Golden Mirror of the Medical Tradition. It is recorded that Flos Lonicerae, Flos Dendranthematis Indici and Nudicaulous Grounsel Herb have the function of anti-inflammation and immunomodulation [46,47,48]. Some researchers find that Herba Taraxaci Mongolici has the function of anti-bacteria, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, diuresis, anti-allergy, promoting immunity, and is beneficial for the stomach [49]. Because of its strong effect of anti-pathogenic microorganisms, Herba Violae Philippicae is often used in the treatment of ulcers and carbuncle with symptoms like swelling and pain [50]. It is believed that Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction can enhance the immunity of diseased mice and reduce the IL-10 to the normal level [51]. Besides, another report also illustrates that Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction could increase the phagocyte index and phagocyte rate of macrophages, adjust the balance of flora and thus enhance the immune function [52].

The pharmacological mechanism of Zhuye Shigao Decoction in the treatment of gout

Zhuye Shigao Decoction is composed of Folium Phyllostachydis Henonis, Gypsum Fibrosum, Rhizoma Pinelliae Praeparatum, Radix Ginseng, Radix Ophiopogonis, Oryza Sativa L., Radix Ophiopogonis Japonicir and Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae. Wang et al. [53] held that gout was caused by dampness accumulation and heat blocking the meridians and collaterals, so he adopted the methods of clearing heat and resolving dampness, unblocking the collaterals and relieving pain, and applied Zhuye Shigao Decoction for the treatment. Chen et al. [54] found that after being treated with modified Zhuye Shigao Decoction, serum levels of IL-1β and caspase-1 were reduced, and the expression levels of pro-IL-1 and pro-caspase-1 were down-regulated, suggesting that the modified Zhuye Shigao Decoction could inhibit the inflammation induced by sodium urate crystals, which may be related to the intervention of IL-1 signaling pathway.

The pharmacological mechanism of Qingre Chubi Decoction in the treatment of gout

There are two formulas named as Qingre Chubi Decoction which are of different compositions and similar effects. In one Qingre Chubi Decoction, the ingredients include Herba Aristolochiae Mollissimae, Caulis Sinomenii, Radix Cudraniae Cochinchinensi, Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae, and Rhizoma Anemarrhenae. Another Qingre Chubi Decoction is composed of Caulis Sinomenii, Caulis Piperis Kadsura, Ramulus Mori, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae Herba Lycopi Hirtiaa, Radix et Rhizoma Clematidis, Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae and Lumbricus. Wang et al. [55] confirmed that the first Qingre Chubi Decoction could relieve the symptoms of patients such as feverish sensation, joint swelling and pain, and reduce the inflammatory indicators such as ESR and CRP. Some studies suggested that Qingre Chubi Decoction might inhibit the release of IL-1β and Home remedy for gout in thumb to ameliorate the acute inflammatory response of gout [56]. Additionally, Qingre Chubi Decoction inhibited the proliferation of THP-1 cells stimulated by MSU crystals. The inhibition of monocyte activity and IL-1β may be one of the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of Qingre Chubi Decoction [57].

The pharmacological mechanism of Tongfengshu Capsule in the treatment of gout

Tongfengshu Capsule, composed of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei Palmati, Semen Plantaginis, Rhizoma Alismatis, Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, is a Chinese patent medicine. Rheum emodin, one chemical component from Radix et Rhizoma Rhei Palmati, could inhibit the expression of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and IL-1 mRNAs [58] and inhibit the activation of extra cellular signal–regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and p38 nitrogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) signaling pathways by inhibiting the expression of ERK1/2 nucleus and p38MAPK, thereby reducing the release of inflammatory factors [59]. Semen Plantaginis and Rhizoma Alismatis could promote urination, and reduce swelling and pain. Among them, Semen Plantaginis, rich in mullein glycolic anhydride, could promote uric acid secretion, reduce the creatinine level, scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improve renal function [60]. In addition, it is reported that the ethanol extract of Rhizoma Alismatis could reduce SUA level without damaging renal function [61]. Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae has the function of dispelling wind, relieving pain and inducing diuresis to alleviate edema. Tetrandrine, the active ingredient of Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae could inhibit the inflammatory response of cells, and this anti-inflammation mechanism may be related to inhibiting nuclear factors such as NF-κB, reducing IL-6 and TNF-α levels, and promoting the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines home remedy for gout in thumb as IL-10 [62]. It is also reported that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae could increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduce serum lipid peroxide level, and regulate immunity and metabolism of the body [63]. Based on home remedy for gout in thumb previous study, the anti-inflammation mechanism of Tongfengshu Capsule may be related to inhibiting the synthesis or release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and resisting lipid peroxidation [64]. It was also found that Tongfengshu capsule could significantly relieve symptoms of joints in rats with acute gout arthritis, suggesting the mechanism might be related to reducing IL-1β and TNF-α levels, inhibiting the expression of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) and nitrogen oxide (NO), and promoting the release of SOD [65]. Besides, some researchers proposed that the therapeutic mechanism of Tongfengshu Capsule in the treatment of gout arthritis was related to the down-regulation of serum levels of high mobility group protein 1 (HMGB l) and receptor for advanced glycosylation end-products (RAGE) in patients with gout [65].

The pharmacological mechanism of Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction in the treatment of gout

Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction, firstly recorded in the TCM classics, Synopsis of the Golden Chamber, is composed of Herba Ephedrae Sinicae, Ramulus Cinnamomi, Radix Saposhnikoviae, Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata, Rhizoma Anemarrhenae, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens. Herba Ephedrae Sinicae, could scavenge ROS and had significant antioxidant effects [65]. In addition to anti-bacterium, anti-virus and anti-inflammation effects [66, 67], Ramulus Cinnamomi and Radix Saposhnikoviae can also stimulate the secretion of saliva and gastric juice and stimulate sweat glands to dissipate heat [68]. Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome and Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata have the function of warming channels to dispel coldness. It is recorded that Rhizoma Anemarrhenae and Radix Paeoniae Alba could nourish yin and clear heat. It took the researchers 5 years to find that Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction has the function of relieving pain, anti-inflammation and healing bone injury. Besides, it also could induce apoptosis of synovial cell, regulate immunity, and promote uric acid excretion, and protect renal function to treat gout arthritis [69]. Some researchers proposed that the mechanism underlying the Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction in the treatment of gout arthritis was related to reducing the expression of Toll-like receptor (TRL)-2, TRL-4, NLRP3 receptor, myeloid differentiation factor (MyD)88 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), increasing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and inhibitor-κB (IκB)-α, inhibiting the differentiation and maturation of IL-1β and the activation of NF-κB [70].

The pharmacological mechanism of Tongfengan Mixture in the treatment of gout

Tongfengan Mixture, composed of Herba Lysimachiae, Semen Sinapis, Thallus Ulvae Fasciata, Spora Lygodii, Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae, Flos Carthami, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Pseudobullbus Cremastrae, Rhizoma Alismatis and Rhizoma Corydalis, has the function of softening hardness and dissipating mass. It is found that in the rat models, Tongfengan Mixture can relieve the swelling, reduce the level of MSU crystals in the ankle joints, and reduce the inflammatory reaction, which may be achieved by reducing the inflammatory reaction in the blood [71]. Liu et al. [32] suggested that Tongfeng Mixture could inhibit the secretion of inflammatory factors like IL-1β, TNF-α and NF-κB in the synovial tissue of the ankle joint of rats by clearing away urate crystals, and reducing the inflammation.

The pharmacological mechanism of Quzhuo Tongbi Decoction in the treatment of gout

There are two formulas name as Quzhuo Tongbi Decoction which are of different compositions and similar effects. In one Quzhuo Tongbi Decoction, the ingredients include Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae, Rhizoma Dioscoreae, Stigma Maydis, Semen Coicis, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, Herba Taxilli Chinensis, Rhizoma Corydalis, Folium Pyrrosiae and Semen Plantaginis. Another Quzhuo Tongbi Decoction is composed of Radix Aconiti, Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae, Radix Bupleuri Chinensi, Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome, Radix Astragali, Caulis Lonicerae and Radix Paeoniae Rubra. It has been documented that some intestinal bacteria could cause abnormal uric acid metabolism [72]. Zhu et al. [73] found that the medium and high dosage of the first Quzhuo Tongbi Decoction can reduce the level of uric acid, serum creatinine and xanthine oxidase (XOD). Besides, it could also relieve inflammation symptoms, inhibit the production of PGE2, relieve pain sensation by blocking the sensation of peripheral nerves to pain stimuli [74].

The pharmacological mechanism of Peiyuan Huazhuo Decoction in the treatment of gout

Peiyuan Huazhuo Decoction is composed of Rhizoma Polygonatum Sibirici, Semen Cuscutae, Radix Astragali, Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae, Semen Coicis and Rhizoma Corydalis. Yang et al. [75] found that Radix Astragali could increase the glomerular filtration rate. It was also found that Rhizoma Polygonatum Sibirici not only had a good effect of lowering SUA levels, but also reduced blood lipid and glucose [35]. The herbs in this formula work together to treat lipid metabolism disorders, inhibit inflammatory reactions, prevent gout attack, and prevent renal damage in patients with gout.

Conclusions and perspective

The etiology of gout is complex and there are various hypotheses about its pathogenesis. According to the disease mechanism of TCM, therapeutic principles like dispelling wind and cold, clearing away heat and dampness, and dredging meridians and collaterals are often applied to treat acute gout [16]. During the remission stage, benefiting qi, nourishing blood and tonifying spleen and kidney are often applied (Fig. 3) [44]. Inhibiting inflammatory factors in joint fluid, reducing blood uric and promotion of uric acid excretion, enhancing immune function and blocking the sensation of peripheral nerve are the main mechanism underly TCM treatment for gout (Fig. 4).

The main pharmacological mechanisms of the treatment of acute gout and gout during the remission. The disease of gout consists of the attack stage and remission stage, which should be treated differently based on disease mechanism of TCM

Full size image

The main TCM formulas and the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of the treatment of gout. There are two ways to reduce the SUA level: one is to promote uric acid excretion, and the other is to reduce uric acid production

Full size image

Compared with chemical drugs like colchicine, eloricoxib and celecoxib, TCM herbs have advantages in slowing down the severity and frequency of attacks, reducing the concentration of uric acid in blood with fewer side effects. Although TCM has a strong advantage in the treatment of gout, the application of TCM herbs or formulas should follow the principle of syndrome differentiation and treatment from TCM perspective.

In this review, we focus on the research data from animal and clinical studies in recent years, and summarize the TCM theory of gout, the clinical application, pharmacological mechanism and the chemical compounds of TCM formulas for gout treatment. By doing this we hope to help the researchers on exploring the mechanism of TCM treatment for gout and to develop agents more effectively for gout treatment.

Availability of data and materials

All the data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Abbreviations

Monosodium urate

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Traditional Chinese medicine

Tumor necrosis factor

Interleukin

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

C-reaction protein CRP

NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

Reactive oxygen species

Superoxide dismutase

Malonic dialdehyde

Nitrogen oxide

High mobility group protein 1

Receptor for advanced glycosylation end-products

Serum uric acid

Toll-like receptor

Myeloid differentiation

Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

Prostaglandin E2

Xanthine oxidase

References

  1. 1.

    Zeng XF, Chen YL. 2016 China gout diagnosis and treatment guide. Zhejiang Med J. 2017;39(21):1823–32.

    Google Scholar

  2. 2.

    Yu KH, Chen DY, Chen JH, Chen SY, Chen SM, Cheng TT, et al. Management of gout and hyperuricemia: multidisciplinary consensus in Taiwan. Int J Rheum Dis. 2018;21(4):772–87.

    CASPubMedArticlePubMed Central Google Scholar

  3. 3.

    Jiang Y, Lin Y, Hu YJ, Song XJ, Pan HH, Zhang HJ. Caffeoylquinic acid derivatives rich extract from Gnaphalium pensylvanicum willd, Ameliorates hyperuricemia and acute gouty arthritis in animal model. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17(1):320.

    PubMedPubMed CentralArticleCAS Google Scholar

  4. 4.

    Sivera F, Wechalekar MD, Andres M, Buchbinder R, Carmona L. Interleukin-1 inhibitors for acute gout. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;9:Cd009993.

    Google Scholar

  5. 5.

    Xiao N, Chen H, He SY, Xue CX, Sui H, Chen J, et al. Evaluating the efficacy and adverse effects of clearing heat and removing dampness method of traditional Chinese medicine by comparison with western medicine in patients with gout. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018;2018:8591349.

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  6. 6.

    Aung Chase bank drive thru hours san antonio, Myung G, FitzGerald JD. Treatment approaches and adherence to urate-lowering therapy for patients with gout. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2017;11:795–800.

    PubMedPubMed CentralArticle Google Scholar

  7. 7.

    Choi HK, Curhan G. Gout: epidemiology and lifestyle choices. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2005;17(3):341–5.

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  8. 8.

    Zhang Y, Zhang H, Chang D, Guo F, Pan H, Yang Y. Metabolomics approach by (1)H NMR spectroscopy of serum reveals progression axes for asymptomatic hyperuricemia and gout. Arthritis Res Ther. 2018;20(1):111.

    PubMedPubMed CentralArticleCAS Google Scholar

  9. 9.

    Qaseem A, Harris RP, Forciea MA. Management of acute and recurrent gout: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017;166(1):58–68.

    PubMedArticlePubMed Central Google Scholar

  10. 10.

    Smith HS, Bracken D, Smith JM. Gout: current insights and future perspectives. J Pain. 2011;12(11):1113–29.

    CASPubMedArticlePubMed Central Google Scholar

  11. 11.

    Perez-Ruiz F, Dalbeth N, Bardin T. A review of uric acid, crystal deposition disease, and gout. Adv Ther. 2015;32(1):31–41.

    CASPubMedArticlePubMed Central Google Scholar

  12. 12.

    Jia L, Wang RS, He DY. Traditional Chinese and western medicine understanding of gout pathogenesis. Rheum Arthritis. 2018;7(02):61–4.

    Google Scholar

  13. 13.

    Jin CY, Xie HY, Xie CG. Discussion on the pathogenesis of gout in home remedy for gout in thumb Chinese medicine. Guangming J Chin Med. 2018;33(01):44–6.

    CAS Google Scholar

  14. 14.

    Liu RR, Yue RS, Zhao WW, Wang J, Yang MY, Chen X. Analysis of gout syndrome from ship fedex using recipient account number Pain, Shape Swollen” of Neijing. J Sichuan Tradit Chin Med. 2018;36(10):1–3.

    Google Scholar

  15. 15.

    Zhang P, Huang SF, Fan GJ. Brief introduction to professor Fan Guanjie’s traditional Chinese medicine treatment of gout. Lishizhen Med Materia Medica Res. 2018;29(01):210–1.

    Google Scholar

  16. 16.

    Li YB, Cui M, Yang Y, Yu Q, Zhu XB, Tian Y, et al. Similarity of traditional Chinese medicine formula. Chin Arch Tradit Chin Med. 2012;30(05):1096–7.

    CAS Google Scholar

  17. 17.

    Chen J. Clinical effect of Jiawei Simiao pills in the treatment of gouty arthritis. J Emerg Tradit Chin Med. 2014;23(03):532–3.

    Google Scholar

  18. 18.

    Huang F, Ma WF. Clinical and analgesic effect of Jiawei Simiao San for oral administration together with external application of Jinhuang Cream on acute gouty arthritis. J Emerg Tradit Chin Med. 2017;26(03):526–9.

    Google Scholar

  19. 19.

    Wu HH, Lyu X, Guo LZ, Ji B. Treatment of acute gout attack with integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine. J Changchun Univ Chin Med. 2019;35(01):73–5.

    CAS Google Scholar

  20. 20.

    Shen P, Li WM, Shen ZD. Clinical effect of Jiawei Simiao pills in the treatment of gout. J Math Med. 2018;31(05):761–2.

    Google Scholar

  21. 21.

    Yu WJ, Liang Y, Li M, Sha H, Xu J, Wang L, et al. Clinical study on treatment of damp-heating gouty arthritis with modified Wuwei Xiaodu Decoction combined with small dose of colchicine. J Obesity in america statistics 2018 Tradit Chin Med. 2019;37(02):119–21.

    Google Scholar

  22. 22.

    Kang HY. Clinical effect of modified Guizhi Fuling Pill and Wuwei Xiaoduyin in the treatment of gout. Pharmacol Clin Chin Materia Medica. 2015;31(02):99–101.

    Google Scholar

  23. 23.

    Li ZJ. Randomized parallel controlled study of Zhuye Shigao Decoction in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis. J Pract Tradit Chin Intern Med. 2019;33(01):39–41.

    Google Scholar

  24. 24.

    Lao BN, Sun WF, Li J. Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of Qingre Chubi Decoction in treating acute gout. J Guangzhou Univ Tradit Chin Med. 2016;33(06):794–9.

    Google Scholar

  25. 25.

    Xi HQ. Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of Qingre Chubi Decoction in treating acute gout. Clin Med. 2017;37(08):117–9.

    Google Scholar

  26. 26.

    Lin HG, Xu RF, Xu HB. Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of Qingre Chubi Decoction in treating acute gout. J Guangxi Univ Chin Med. 2018;21(04):22–4.

    Google Scholar

  27. 27.

    Li HY. Safety and clinical efficacy of the Qingre Chubi Decoction on acute gout. Clin J Chin Med. 2018;10(08):129–30.

    Google Scholar

  28. 28.

    Wang WJ, Wen SD. Professor Wen Shaodun’s experience in treating gout. World Latest Med Inf. 2018;18(92):217–9.

    CAS Google Scholar

  29. 29.

    Tang ZY, Chen CT. Efficacy and mechanism of ‘Tongfengshu Capsule’ in the treatment of gouty arthritis. Health Res. 2018;38(01):79-81+84.

    Google Scholar

  30. 30.

    Zhu HM. Forty-five cases of acute gouty arthritis with wind-cold-dampness arthralgia syndrome treated with supplemented cinnamon twig and peony Decoction plus Rhizoma Anemarrhenae. Henan Tradit Chin Med. 2019;39(04):508–11.

    Google Scholar

  31. 31.

    He XH, Xu ZX, He YT. Observation for 30 cases of gouty arthritis treated with modified Jiawei Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimu Decoction. Chin J Exp Tradit Med Formulae. 2013;19(19):326–8.

    Google Scholar

  32. 32.

    Liu HY, Wang L. Effects of stone elimination method on the expressions of synovial tissue cytokines in the rats with acute gout. World J Integr Tradit West Med. 2018;13(10):1385–9.

    Google Scholar

  33. 33.

    Liu FF, Yang W, Li HC, Wen CP. Based on the theory of “Internal retention pathogenic dampness lead to bi” to discuss the relationship between dampness and gout. J Emerg Tradit Chin Med. 2015;24(01):96–8.

    Google Scholar

  34. 34.

    Qin XP, Zhao YC, He W. Clinical study on 36 patients with spleen-yang deficiency of gout during remission period treated by Tongyang Xiezhuo Decoction. J Pract Tradit Chin Med. 2019;35(06):674–5.

    Google Scholar

  35. 35.

    Wang DJ, Hong QX, Su L. Clinical observation on “Peiyuan Huazhuo Formula” combined with benzbromarone for the treatment of early renal injury in gout. Shanghai J Tradit Chin Med. 2014;48(12):39–41.

    Google Scholar

  36. 36.

    Akahoshi T. Pathological mechanisms of gouty arthritis, Nihon rinsho. Japn J Clin Med. 2008;66(4):705–10.

    Google Scholar

  37. 37.

    Dang WT, Zhou JG, Xie WG. Discussion on the pathogenesis of “metabolism-inflammation-immunity” of gout from synopsis of golden chamber. Liaoning J Tradit Chin Med. 2014;41(10):2090–3.

    Google Scholar

  38. 38.

    Wang Z, Zheng H, Hao HQ. Research on treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with traditional Chinese Medicine Ermiao San. World J Integr Tradit West Med. 2019;14(04):590–2.

    Google Scholar

  39. 39.

    Gao Y, Zhou HF, Lu D, Qian F. Chemical composition analysis and pharmacological research progress of cortex phellodendri. Asia-Pac Tradit Med. 2019;15(04):207–9.

Источник: https://cmjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13020-020-0297-y
7. Myth: People with gout should avoid all proteins. Truth: Animal proteins have the highest levels of purines, so it’s better to eat vegetable protein like beans and peas, which may also help you lose weight. In fact, a 2010 review in a rheumatology journal notes that protein rich foods like dairy products, nuts, beans, peas and whole grains are healthy choices for people with gout, reducing the risk of heart disease, and possibly lowering the risk of insulin resistance. For the 8 Myths About Gout slideshow.

Photo by Getty Images

Changing your diet can help reduce the frequency of gout attacks.

7. Myth: Once you've got gout, lifestyle changes don't really help.

Truth: Lifestyle changes can reduce both the real estate listings nyc and frequency of attacks. For starters, when people lose weight, they often have fewer attacks, says Reveille.

Animal proteins have a higher level of purines, so it's better to eat vegetable proteins like beans and peas.

In fact, a 2010 review in the rheumatology journal Current Opinion in Rheumatology notes that protein-rich foods such as dairy products, nuts, beans, peas and whole grains are healthy choices for people with gout, reducing the risk of heart disease and possibly lowering the risk of insulin resistance.

Baraf says that he asks patients to abstain from alcohol during the first six months of treatment, until medications have stabilized uric acid levels. After that, he says, it's fine to drink — in moderation.

Dorothy Foltz-Gray is a freelance writer who lives in North Carolina.

Remember to go to the AARP home page every day for tips on keeping healthy and sharp, and great deals.

Источник: https://www.aarp.org/health/conditions-treatments/info-08-2012/gout-myths-vs-facts.html

For those who suffer from gout, it’s hard to imagine a more painful, debilitating condition of the lower extremities. Gout is a condition that occurs when serum uric acid levels become too great, leading to formation of uric acid crystals in the joints of the feet, toes, ankles, and knees. The crystals can cause extreme swelling, inflammation, and pain in the affected area, and gout can even lead to eventual damage of cartilage and connective tissues in the impacted joint that must be diagnosed and treated by a foot and ankle doctor. Many liken the pain of gout to the sensation of hundreds of red-hot needles penetrating the joint, which is an unpleasant feeling to say the least.

Gout pain The root cause of gout is tied to several factors that lead to the concentration of uric acid in the bloodstream. For example, dehydration, poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, and other related factors can lead to the onset of gout. In some cases, it can take weeks for the patient to see a return to normal activities. Therefore, management of gout is critical to maintaining a pain-free unrestricted lifestyle. With care from a External link opens in new tab or windowfoot doctor in The Woodlands, TX, and careful management of risk factors, it’s possible for sufferers of gout to avoid its adverse effects. Keep reading to learn how you can prevent gout and reduce the severity of the outbreaks that you do experience.

Modify Your Diet

There are some specific foods that act as triggers for gout by inundating your system with purines, molecules that are found in all living things. Some foods have high concentrations of those purines, which are broken down into uric acid by the liver in humans. Therefore, it’s important for gout sufferers to avoid those purine-rich foods. That list includes fried foods, red meat, shellfish, organ meats, dairy products, and beer. Instead of these foods, eat a diet that is rich in fresh vegetables, lean proteins such as white chicken and fish, and whole grains.

Bowl of cherries Stay Hydrated

In Texas, it’s tough to stay hydrated during the hottest months of the summer. The unrelenting ambient heat leads to significant fluid loss, and if that hydration isn’t routinely replaced throughout the day, dehydration can strike. Dehydration can cause the concentration of serum uric acid levels to spike, which can bring on a gout flare. The problem is well recognized among orthopedic physicians who refer to the summer as “gout season.” Drink additional water in the summer months to ward off gout symptoms.

Alkalize

Since the root cause of gout symptoms is a concentration of uric acid in home remedy for gout in thumb blood stream, some sufferers of gout have success by alkalizing their systems. Those with diets high in fresh vegetables have increased alkalinity, but you can also balance your inner pH by ingesting bicarbonate of soda or electrolytes dissolved in drinking water. While you should consult with your physician before beginning a bicarbonate regimen, ingesting alkalizing agents can help balance your body’s pH levels and keep uric acid at bay.

Natural Remedies

There are many natural remedies that can help you conquer gout flares and avoid severe symptoms. Cherries are one of the most powerful weapons against gout. They have been proven to neutralize the effect of uric acid on joints throughout the body. Research indicates that cherries, in any form, taken three times over two days can prevent a gout flare and ward off symptoms. Cherries can battle worn bb 8 droid with force band by sphero consumed whole, in juice form, or as supplements in capsule form. Ginger attacks gout on two fronts by reducing inflammation in the joints and lowering serum levels of uric acid. Turmeric is another powerful anti-inflammatory that can be enlisted against gout, particularly when it’s blended with unfiltered apple cider vinegar and lemon juice. Apples can be employed as gout fighters as well, as the malic acid in apples is a potent anti-gout compound and the pectin in apples can help bind uric acid and flush it from the system.

If you suffer from home remedy for gout in thumb effects of gout, there’s a great deal you can do to prevent gout flares and reduce the severity of those that can’t be avoided. To learn more about how you can win your personal battle with gout, contact Ankle & Foot Specialists of Conroe & The Woodlands by calling (936) 271-3668. 

Источник: http://ankleandfootspecialist.com/healing-your-feet-of-gout-at-home.html

5 thoughts on “Home remedy for gout in thumb

  1. Bhai, Hdfc third party transfer ko register karne ke liye or karne ke baad koi charges kat ta hai kya??

  2. Same with me. I had someone send me money and I went through a lot of email to support trying to figure it out. And it was already there. Lol

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *